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INITIATIVE AGAINST TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
Resources & Contacts
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Last updated: September 5, 2002

The following list of resources and contacts is not intended to be a complete or even a partial survey of the literature or important documents on trafficking in human beings or on all of the organizations working on trafficking. It simply represents a collection of some documents and contacts that the Initiative considers important and useful.

Items added since August 1, 2002 are noted with NEW!

UNITED NATIONS DOCUMENTS

Treaties
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000) (The Convention and the list of signatory countries are also found on this site.)

The Interpretative Notes (Travaux Preparatoires)(A/55/383/Add.1 Addendum) to the Protocol See particularly the explanation of the definition of trafficking and the list of signatory countries. The Interpretative Notes are available in other languages at the same site. NOTE: The definition and its Interpretative Note are reproduced at the end of this Bibliography.

The Annotated Guide to the Complete UN Trafficking Protocol (2002), Ann Jordan, Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons, International Human Rights Law Group

Optional Protocol to Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

Slavery Convention (1927) Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery (1957)

International Labor Organization Conventions
Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour No. C182 (1999). Click on C182 in left menu.

Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour No. C29 (1930). Click on C29 in left menu.

Other Human Rights Instruments, by country, name of treaty, type of treaty, reporting status, ratifications and reservations can be accessed via the UN online database and this PDF report .

UNITED NATIONS REPORTS

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson

NEW! Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to the Economic and Social Council (United Nations E/2002/68/Add.1) (May 20, 2002) (Principios y Directrices recomendados sobre los derechos humanos y la trata de personas) (Principes et directives concernant les droits de l'homme et la traite des ?tres humains: recommandations)

Women's Rights are Human Rights, Special Issue on Women's Rights (Spring 2000)

Informal Note (PDF), relating to the negotiations on the UN Trafficking Protocol

Statement at Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery (June 1999)

The UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women
Radhika Coomaraswamy

Trafficking in women, women's migration and violence against women, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1997/44 (E/CN.4/2000/68, 29 February 2000)

NEW! The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights of Migrants, Gabriela Rodriguez Pizarro's Questionnaire for allegations of violations of migrants, including trafficked persons. You can send information about specific cases to Ms. Pizarro. The form is also available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese and Russian.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations Children's Fund and the International Organization for Migration Draft protocols on migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons (PDF)

INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

International Organization for Migration

International Labour Organisation "The Sex Sector: The economic and social bases of prostitution in Southeast Asia," Edited by L. Lean Lim (1998), can be ordered from the ILO (reference: ISBN 92-2-109522-3)

NEW! "Getting at the Roots: Stopping Exploitation of Migrant Workers by Organized Crime" (PDF), by Patrick A. Taran and Gloria Moreno-Fontes. Highly recommended.

TRAFFICKING NEWS AND DISCUSSION LISTSERV

To supbscribe to the Stop Traffic Listserv go to the above site or send a message to stop-traffic@friends-partners.org. Click here to veiw the Stop Traffic archives.

UNITED STATES AND CANADA: LAWS and POLICIES; GOVERNMENT
REPORTS and CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS

United States Law

H.R. 3244 Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (USA) Sections 1-113. Note: H.R. 3244 was assigned Public Law No. 106-386

Joint Explanatory Statement of the Committee of the Conference, Concerning Division A. The House and Senate met in a joint Conference to resolve differences between the House and the Senate trafficking bills. The following site contains the first section of the Conference Committee report. Open the site and then click on "forward" to go the next section.

Justice Department

T nonimmigrant status: Interim rule with request for comments, 4783-4820 [02-2186].

Freedom Network (USA) comments to INS on Interim Rule

Application forms for T nonimmigrant status

Section 107(c) provisions: Interim Rule, Trafficking victims; protection and assistance, 38513-38522 [01-18388]

Brochures

Trafficking in Persons: A Guide for Non-governmental Organizations (PDF), US Department of Justice, Criminal Justice Division. Click here to view the USDOJ's victims brochure (PDF).

US Attorney General Guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance, 2000 edition

State Department brochure on trafficking

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in Persons Report of 2002 Report

Global Issues: Arresting Transnational Crime (August 2001 Vol. 6, Number 2) is an electronic journal of the US Department of State, which is also available in French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. The issue linked to here includes Trafficking in Human Beings: The Slavery that Surrounds Us by Ann Jordan, Director, Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons, International Human Rights Law Group

Government Reports

International Trafficking in Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime (PDF), Amy O'Neill Richard (November 1999)

International Matchmaking Organizations: A Report to Congress, US Immigration and Naturalization Service

Congressional Hearings

The U.N. and the Sex Slave Trade in Bosnia: Isolated Case or Larger Problem in the U.N. System?, House Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights April 24, 2002

UNITES STATES and CANADA REPORTS

Hidden In The Home: Abuse of Domestic Workers with Special Visas in the U.S. - U.S. Laws And Their Enforcement: Domestic Workers Falling Outside Government Scrutiny And Protections In Violation Of International Law, Human Rights Watch, 6/01, Vol. 13, No. 2 (G)

Maid to Order, Joy Mutanu Zarembka, in ColorLines (Fall 2001 Issue, Vol. 4)

Trapped: Human Trafficking for Forced labor in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (a U.S.Territory) (PDF>, Global Survival Network (1999)

Migrant Sex Workers from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: The Canadian Case, Lynn McDonald, Brooke Moore and Natalya Timoshkina (November 2000)

US NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Freedom Network (USA) to Empower Trafficked and Enslaved Persons
International Human Rights Law Group - Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons
Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking
Human Rights Watch
Campaign for Migrant Domestic Worker Rights, Institute for Policy Studies

AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST: LAWS and POLICIES; REPORTS; and NGOs

Laws and Policies

Declaration on the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons Economic Community of West African States (PDF) (December 2001)

Reports

Israel: Human rights abuses of women trafficked from the Commonwealth of Independent States, Amnesty International

Research on Trafficking in Women in Nigeria, Women's Consortium of Nigeria

Trafficking of Nigerian Girls to the Netherlands, , Terres des Hommes Netherlands, in cooperation with the Nigerian Union Netherlands (1999)

NGOs

Israel
Hotline for Migrant Workers

Nigeria
International Human Rights Law Group
Gender Rights Project (Contact GenderRightsProject@hyperia.net)
Women's Consortium of Nigeria and Women in Law and Development-Africa

ASIA PACIFIC: REPORTS and NGOs

Rreports

Trafficking in Women in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Regional Report, GAATW

Research Report on Mainland Chinese Sex Workers: Hong Kong, Macau & Town B in Pearl River Delta, Zi Teng (Hong Kong 2000)

"Trafficking, Sex-Work and Prostitution": Discourses and Representations of the Subcontinent, re/productions #2 (April 1999)

NGOs

Cambodia
Cambodian Women's Development Association
Cambodian Women,s Crisis Center
Center Against Trafficking, Cambodian Defenders Project

Hong Kong
Ziteng

Philippines
Asian Women's Human Rights Council

Thailand
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women-GAATW

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, RUSSIA: REPORTS and NGOs

Reports

Reference Guide for Anti-Trafficking Legislative Review with Particular Emphasis on South Eastern Europe (PDF), Angelica Kartusch, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights (September 2001)

Trafficking in Human Beings in Southeastern Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova and Romania), Barbara Limanowska with support from UN Children's Fund, UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe/Office for the Democratic Institutions and Human Rights(2002)

Trafficking in Women: Moldova and the Ukraine, Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights (December 2000)

Reports on Czech, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and International Standards by Ludwig Boltzman are available via the Institute of Human Rights (Vienna)

Legal Study on the Combat of Trafficking in Women and Forced Prostitution in Ukraine, Kateryna Levchenko, La Strada-Ukraine, September 1999

Victims of Trafficking in the Balkans (PDF), International Organization for Migration (2001)

Crime & Servitude: An Expos? of the Traffic in Women for Prostitution from the Newly Independent States, by Gillian Caldwell, Steven Galster, and Nadia Steinzor, Global Survival Network (1997)

NGOs

Belarus
YWCA of Belarus (a La Strada Partner)

Bosnia and Herzegovenia
International Human Rights Law Group
RING Anti-trafficking Network

Bulgaria
Animus Association (a La Strada partner)

Czech Republic
La Strada

Macedonia
Open Gate (a La Strada partner)

Moldova
Moldavian Family Planning Association (a La Strada partner)

Poland
La Strada

Russia
Association of Women's Crisis Centers Perm Center Against Violence and Human Trafficking

Serbia
Astra Anti Sex Trafficking Action

Ukraine
La Strada

WESTERN EUROPE: LAWS and POLICIES, REPORTS, RESOURCES, INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS and NGOs

Laws and Policies

Council Framework Decision (PDF) of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings (2002/629/JHA)

Proposal for a COUNCIL DIRECTIVE on the short-term residence permit (PDF) issued to victims of action to facilitate illegal immigration or trafficking in human beings who cooperate with competent authorities. Brussels, Feb. 11, 2002, COM(200) 71 final, 2002/0043 (CNS)

Communication from the Commission to the Council and European Parliament on combating trafficking in human beings and combating the sexual exploitation of children and child pornography (Com 2000 854 final/2, January 2001)

Communication from the European Commission to the European Council and the European Parliament: Combating trafficking in human beings and combating the sexual exploitation of children and child pornography (PDF)

NGO recommendations on the Communication, Human Rights Watch and Anti-Slavery International

European Court of Justice judgment of 20 November 2001: Prostitution is an "economic activity" and so Polish and Czech nationals can work as self-employed sex workers in EU on same basis as nationals, Aldona Malgorzata Jany and Others v Staatssecretaris van Justitie. Case C-268/99.

Reports

Domestic Slavery, Prepared by John Connor (Ireland), Group of the European People's Party for the Council of Europe Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men (Document 9102, 17 May 2001)

Report on Combating organized crime: For further actions in the fight against trafficking in women, by Patsy Sorensen, member of the European Parliament for the Committee on Women's Rights and Equal Opportunities (2 May 2000). This report refers to further actions in the fight against trafficking in women on the communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament (A5-0127/2000).

The trafficking and smuggling of refugees: The end game in European asylum policy? (PDF), John Morrison (July 2000)

Campaign against trafficking in women: Report to Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, Rapporteur Mrs. Lydie Err, Luxembourg (Doc. 9190, 7 September 2001)

Report on Berlin Conference (October 2001)(PDF), Ausw?rtiges Amt in Co-operation with the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights

Memorandum of Concern: Trafficking of Migrant Women for Forced Prostitution into Greece, Human Rights Watch

The traffic in foreign women in Berlin: A description of the present situation, Ban Ying Coordination Center (December 1994)

Redefining Prostitution as Sex Work on the International Agenda, Jo Bindman, Anti-Slavery International, with participation of Jo Doezema

Resources

Legal Agenda for Migrant Prostitutes and Trafficked Women on the Internet, Amnesty for Women e.V. and the TAMPEP Network

European Intergovernmental Organizations

Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights

European NGOs

Austria
Lefo (Contact via lefoe@t0.or.at)

Belgium
Payoke

Germany
Ban-Ying KOK-NGO Network Against Trafficking in Women

Netherlands Foundation Against Trafficking in Women

United Kingdom
Anti-Slavery International

LATIN AMERICA, CARIBBEAN: REPORTS and NGOs

Reports
I Never Thought This Would Happen To Me: Prostitution and traffic in Latin American women in the Netherlands, by Fanny Polania Molina & Marie-Louise Janssen (Foundation ESPERANZA 1998)

NGOs

Columbia
Fundacion Esperanza

Costa Rica
Casa Alianza

OTHER REPORTS and DOCUMENTS

"Human Rights or Wrongs?: The Struggle for a Rights-Based Response to Trafficking in Human Beings", Gender and Development Journal (2002 Oxfam), by Ann Jordan, Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons, International Human Rights Law Group

Report from the Roundtable on "Trafficking in Persons: A Human Rights Perspective", by Ali Miller and Alison N. Stewart, Women's Rights Law Reporter 20.1:11 (1998)

"Trafficking in Women: Forced Labour and Slavery-like Practices in Marriage, Domestic Labour and Prostitution", Wijers, Marjan and Lin Lap-chew, Women, Ink. (1997)

"Health Issues Associated with the Smuggling and Trafficking of Migrants", Brian D. Gushulak and Douglas W. MacPherson, Journal of Immigrant Health ( Vol. 2, #1, 2000). Although this article does not clearly distinguish between trafficking and smuggling, it does provide an excellent overview of many of the health consequences, and causes, of trafficking and migration in general.

Handbooks available from GAATW: Human Rights and Trafficking in Persons: A Handbook; Human Rights in Practice: A Guide to Assist Trafficked Women and Children; The Migrating Woman's Handbook; and Removing the Whore Stigma.

Human Rights Standards for the Treatment of Trafficked Persons The UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women (see her 2000 Report under UN Documents) has said that "One of the most noteworthy products of a collaborative process by the Global Alliance against Traffic in Women, the Foundation against Trafficking in Women and the International Human Rights Law Group is the Human Rights Standards for the Treatment of Trafficked Persons (January 1999). The Standards are drawn from international human rights instruments and formally-recognized international legal norms. They aim to protect and promote respect for the human rights of individuals who have been victims of trafficking, including those who have been subjected to involuntary servitude, forced labour and/or slavery-like practices. The Special Rapporteur would encourage Governments to utilize the Human Rights Standards in creating new policies and laws. She would encourage the international community to do the same." (para. 106)

INTERNATIONAL DEFINITION OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
(including official explanation of certain terms)

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons "(a) 'Trafficking in persons' shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability [footnote 1] or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation [footnote 2 ], forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery [with footnote on illegal adoptions], servitude or the removal or organs [with footnote explanation];

  • Explanation (1): "The travaux preparatoires should indicate that the reference to the abuse of a position of vulnerability is understood to refer to any situation in which the person involved has no real and acceptable alternative but to submit to the abuse involved."
  • Explanation (2): "The travaux preparatoires should indicate that this Protocol addresses the exploitation of prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation only in the context of trafficking in persons. The terms 'exploitation of the prostitution of other' or 'other forms of sexual exploitation' are not defined in the Protocol. The Protocol is therefore without prejudice to how States Parties address prostitution in their respective domestic laws." {In other words, the Protocol does not define all prostitution as trafficking and so recognizes the difference between forced and voluntary participation in the sex industry by adults. Voluntary migration for sex work is covered by the Smuggling Protocol, which was developed at the same time as the Trafficking Protocol.)

"(b) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in subparagraph (a) shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) are established; [footnotes 4 and 5]"

  • Explanation (4): "The travaux preparatoires should indicate that this subparagraph should not be construed as imposing any restriction on the right of accused persons to a full defence and to the presumption of innocence.***"
  • Explanation (5): "Paragraph b of this Article should not be interpreted as laying upon the victim the burden of proof, as in any criminal proceedings, it is incumbent upon the public prosecutor to prove the elements of the offense in accordance with domestic law."
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